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宾语补足语总汇

原创 IT生活 作者:leonaifei 时间:2007-09-05 13:54:51 0 删除 编辑

宾语补足语总汇

一、定义:

宾语补足语通常紧跟在宾语之后,对宾语进行补充说明。

二、句子结构是:

+++宾补

三、两种结构:

1.主表型:

1) make our country beautiful (adjective)  

2) call him Lao Li  (noun)

3) find sb. out (adv.) 

4) find sb. at home (Prep. phrase) 

2. 主谓型:

1) ask sb. to do sth.(有to 不定式)

2) have sb. do sth. (无to 不定式)

3) see sb. doing sth. (现在分词)

4) have sth. done. (过去分词)

四、什么动词后可有宾语补足语:

1. 在表示心理状态的动词后作宾语补足语。  这类动词有:consider, think, believe, discover, find, imagine, judge, suppose, prove等。这类动词后的不定式通常是"to be+形容词或名词"结构,think, consider, find后的to be常可省略。  We consider him (to be) a good teacher.  

我们认为他是一个好老师。  He proved that theory (to be) very important.  

他证明那个理论是很重要的。  I thought her (to be) nice and honest the first time I met her.  我第一次见到她的时候就认为她人很好,很诚实。

2. 在表示情感状态的动词后作宾语补足语。  这类动词有:love, like, prefer, hate, want, wish, expect等。  I'd prefer you to leave him alone.   

我希望你不要打扰他。  I don't want there to be any trouble.  

我不想有任何麻烦。

3. 注意:hope, demand, suggest等动词后面不能接不定式作宾语补足语。

I hope you can give me a hand.  

我希望你能帮我一把。

I wish you to give me a hand.  

我希望你能帮我一把。

He required us to be present at the meeting. 

他要求我们出席会议。

Mr Li suggested that she should not go there alone. 

李先生建议她不要独自去那里。

五、可作宾语补足语的形式有:

不定式,现在分词,过去分词,名词,形容,副词,介词短语都能作补语。

六、具体说明:

(一)副词作宾语补足语

   I found him in yesterday.

(二)常接形容词作宾语补足语的动词有:keep, make, find等。

如:We must keep our classroom clean.

(三)常接名词作宾语补足语的动词有:call, name, make, think等。

如:We call them mooncakes.

(四)常接动词-ing形式作宾语补足语的动词有:see, watch, hear, find, keep等。

如:In the country, we can hear birds singing.

(五)常接介词短语作宾语补足语的动词有:keep, find, leave等。如:I left my pen on my desk at home.

(六)不定式作宾语补足语

1. 常接带to的动词不定式作宾语补足语的动词有:ask, tell, want, teach, wish等;

2. 接不带to的动词不定式作宾语补足语的动词有:see, watch, hear, make, let advise, allow, ask, beg, command, tell, invite, force, oblige, get, help, encourage, persuade, permit, remind, request, order, warn, cause等。

如:

I often see him play football.

She often asks me to help her.

We don't allow such things to happen again.  

Most of the parents agree to forbid their children to smoke.  

She asked me to answer the phone in her absence.  

  Please remind me to leave her this note.  

She requested him to go with her.  

3. 用不定式作宾语补足语的几种说明:

help后面作宾语补足语的动词不定式可以带to也可以不带to

如:I often help my mother(to) do some housework.

在使役动词后作宾语补足语,不定式不带to有些动词跟不定式作宾语补足语时省去了to,这些动词有: 一感二听三让四观看。 

一感:feel 

二听:hear, listen to 

三让:let, have, make

四观看:observe, see, watch, look at

这类动词有:make, let, have等。转为被动语态时,其后通常都用带to的不定式 (have没有被动语态)  What would you have me do?   

你要我做什么?  She made him give up smoking.  

她让他戒了烟。  Let him do whatever he wishes to do.  

他想干什么就让他干吧。
Though he had often made his little sister cry, today he was made to cry by his little

sister.  虽然经常是他弄哭小妹妹,但今天他却被小妹妹弄哭了

3. 掌握“使役动词 have + 宾语+过去分词”的几种含义

在“ have +宾语+过去分词”结构中,过去分词作宾语补足语, have 也可用 get 。这一结构具有以下几种含义:

意为“主语请别人做某事”。例如:

He wants to have his eyes examined tomorrow.

他明天想去检查眼睛。(“检查”的动作由医生来进行)

意为“主语遭遇、遭受某一不愉快、不测的事情”。例如:

Be careful, or you'll have your hands hurt.

当心,否则会弄伤手的。

意为“使完成某事”,事情既可以是别人做完,也可以由主语参与完成。

例如:

He had the walls painted this morning.

他今早把墙漆了。 (主语自己可能参与)

动词不定式也可作一些短语动词的宾语补足语。

I'm waiting for James to arrive.  

我正等着詹姆斯的到来。

He's arranged for a car to pick them up at the station.  

他已安排了一辆汽车去车站接他们。

The UN has called on both sides to observe the cease fire.  

联合国号召交战双方遵守停火协定。

(七)分词作宾语补足语

用现在分词作宾补,说明宾语是动作的发出者,形成逻辑上的主谓关系;用过去分词作宾补,表示宾语是动作的承受者,构成逻辑上的动宾关系。

 1. 跟分词作宾补的动词有:catch, have get, keep, hear, find, feel, leave, make, want, start, notice, observe, watch, set等。例如:

There was so much noise that the speaker couldn’t make himself heard.

  由于十分吵闹,讲话人没法让人听到他的声音。

  When he awoke, he found himself being looked after by an old woman.

他醒来的时候发现一位老大娘正在照顾他。

2. 几种用过去分词作宾语补足语的情况说明:

①表示“意欲;命令”的动词如 like, want, wish, order 等,可用过去分词

作宾语补足语。例如:

The father wants his daughter taught the piano.

这位父亲想让女儿学钢琴。

②感官动词 see, hear, notice, observe, watch, feel, find 等后,可用过去分词作宾语补足语。例如:

I saw an old man knocked down by a car just now.

刚才我看到一位老人被车撞倒了。

③使役动词 have, get, make, leave, keep 等后,可用过去分词作宾语补足语。例如:

Have you got your films developed? 你拿胶卷去冲洗了没有?

④“ with +宾语+过去分词”结构中,过去分词用作介词 with 的宾语补足语。这一结构通常在句中作时间、方式、条件、原因等状语。例如:

The murderer was brought in, with his hands tied behind his back.

凶手被带进来了,他的双手被绑在背后。(表方式)

With water heated, we can see the steam.

水一被加热,我们就会看到水蒸气。(表条件)

With the matter settled, we all went home.

事情得到解决,我们都回家了。(表原因) <

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