The purpose of this specification is to define a loSSLess
compressed data format that:
* Is independent of CPU type, operating system, file system,
and character set, and hence can be used for interchange;
* Can be produced or consumed, even for an arbitrarily long
sequentially presented input data stream, using only an a
priori bounded amount of intermediate storage, and hence
can be used in data communications or similar structures
such as Unix filters;
* Compresses data with efficiency comparable to the best
currently available general-purpose compression methods,
and in particular considerably better than the "compress"
* Can be implemented readily in a manner not covered by
patents, and hence can be practiced freely;
The data format defined by this specification does not attempt to:
* Allow random access to compressed data;
* Compress specialized data (e.g., raster graphics) as well
as the best currently available specialized algorithms.
A simple counting argument shows that no lossless compression
algorithm can compress every possible input data set. For the
format defined here, the worst case expansion is 5 bytes per 32K-
byte block, i.e., a size increase of 0.015% for large data sets.
English text usually compresses by a factor of 2.5 to 3;
executable files usually compress somewhat less; graphical data
such as raster images may compress much more.
1.2. Intended audience
This specification is intended for use by implementors of software
to compress data into "deflate" format and/or decompress data from
The text of the specification assumes a basic background in
programming at the level of bits and other primitive data
representations. Familiarity with the technique of Huffman coding
is helpful but not required.
The specification specifies a method for representing a sequence
of bytes as a (usually shorter) sequence of bits, and a method for
packing the latter bit sequence into bytes.
Unless otherwise indicated below, a compliant decompressor must be
able to accept and decompress any data set that conforms to all
the specifications presented here; a compliant compressor must
produce data sets that confoRM to all the specifications presented
1.5. Definitions of terms and conventions used
Byte: 8 bits stored or transmitted as a unit (same as an octet).
For this specification, a byte is exactly 8 bits, even on machines
which store a character on a number of bits different from eight.
See below, for the numbering of bits within a byte.
String: a sequence of arbitrary bytes.
1.6. Changes from previous versions
There have been no technical changes to the deflate format since
version 1.1 of this specification. In version 1.2, some
terminology was changed. Version 1.3 is a conversion of the
specification to RFC style.
2. Compressed representation overview
A compressed data set consists of a series of blocks, corresponding
to successive blocks of input data. The block sizes are arbitrary,
except that non-compressible blocks are limited to 65,535 bytes.
Each block is compressed using a combination of the LZ77 algorithm
and Huffman coding. The Huffman trees for each block are independent
of those for previous or subsequent blocks; the LZ77 algorithm may
use a reference to a duplicated string occurring in a previous block,
up to 32K input bytes before.
Each block consists of two parts: a pair of Huffman code trees that
describe the representation of the compressed data part, and a
compressed data part. (The Huffman trees themselves are compressed
using Huffman encoding.) The compressed data consists of a series of
elements of two types: literal bytes (of strings that have not been
detected as duplicated within the previous 32K input bytes), and
pointers to duplicated strings, where a pointer is represented as a
"deflate" format limits distances to 32K bytes and lengths to 258
bytes, but does not limit the size of a block, except for
uncompressible blocks, which are limited as noted above.
Each type of value (literals, distances, and lengths) in the
compressed data is represented using a Huffman code, using one code
tree for literals and lengths and a separate code tree for distances.
The code trees for each block appear in a compact form just before
the compressed data for that block.
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