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iczelion tut14 (转)

原创 IT生活 作者:gugu99 时间:2007-10-31 16:25:26 0 删除 编辑
iczelion tut14 (转)[@more@]We will learn what a process is and how to create and teRminate it.

DOWNLOAD the example here.

Preliminary:

What is a process? I quote this definition from win32 api reference:
"A process is an executing application that consists of a private virtual address space, code, data, and other operating system resources, such as files, pipes, and synchronization objects that are visible to the process."
As you can see from the definition above, a process "owns" several objects: the address space, the executing module(s), and anything that the executing modules create or open. At the minimum, a process must consist of an executing module, a private address space and a thread. Every process must have at least one thread. What's a thread? A thread is actually an execution queue. When windows first creates a process, it creates only one thread per process. This thread usually starts execution from the first instruction in the module. If the process later needs more threads, it can explicitly create them.
When Windows receives a command to create a process, it creates the private memory address space for the process and then it maps the executable file into the space. After that it creates the primary thread for the process.
Under Win32, you can also create processes from your own programs by calling CreateProcess function. CreateProcess has the following syntax:

CreateProcess proto lpApplicationName:Dword,
  lpCommandLine:DWORD,
  lpProcessAttributes:DWORD,

  lpThreadAttributes:DWORD,
  bInheritHandles:DWORD,
  dwCreationFlags:DWORD,
  lpEnvironment:DWORD,
  lpCurrentDirectory:DWORD,
  lpStartupInfo:DWORD,
  lpProcessInformation:DWORD

Don't be alarmed by the number of parameters. We can ignore most of them.

lpApplicationName --> The name of the executable file with or without pathname that you want to execute. If this parameter is null, you must provide the name of the executable file in the lpCommandLine parameter.
lpCommandLine  --> The command line arguments to the program you want to execute. Note that if the lpApplicationName is NULL, this parameter must contain the name of the executable file too. Like this: "notepad.exe readme.txt"
lpProcessAttributes and lpthreadAttributes --> Specify the security attributes for the process and the primary thread. If they're NULLs, the default security attributes are used.
bInheritHandles --> A flag that specify if you want the new process to inherit all opened handles from your process.
dwCreationFlags --> Several flags that determine the behavior of the process you want to created, such as, do you want to process to be created but immediately suspended so that you can examine or modify it before it runs? You can also specify the priority class of the thread(s) in the new process. This priority class is used to determine the scheduling priority of the threads within the process. Normally we use NORMAL_PRIORITY_CLASS flag.
lpEnvironment --> A pointer to the environment block that contains several environment strings for the new process. If this parameter is NULL, the new process inherits the environment block from the parent process.
lpCurrentDirectory --> A pointer to the string that specifies the current drive and directory for the child process. NULL if  you want the child process to inherit from the parent process.
lpStartupInfo --> Points to a STARTUPINFO structure that specifies how the main window for the new process should appear. The STARTUPINFO structure contains many members that specifies the appearance of the main window of the child process. If you don't want anything special, you can fill the STARTUPINFO structure with the values from the parent process by calling GetStartupInfo function.
lpProcessInformation --> Points to a PROCESS_INFORMATION structure that receives identification information about the new process.  The PROCESS_INFORMATION structure has the following members:

PROCESS_INFORMATION STRUCT
  hProcess  HANDLE ?  ; handle to the child process
  hThread  HANDLE ?  ; handle to the primary thread of the child process
  dwProcessId  DWORD ?  ; ID of the child process
  dwThreadId  DWORD ?  ; ID of the primary thread of the child process
PROCESS_INFORMATION ENDS
Process handle and process ID are two different things. A process ID is a unique identifier for the process in the system. A process handle is a value returned by Windows for use with other process-related API functions. A process handle cannot be used to identify a process since it's not unique.

After the CreateProcess call, a new process is created and the CreateProcess call return immediately. You can check if the new process is still active by calling GetExitCodeProcess function which has the following syntax:

GetExitCodeProcess proto hProcess:DWORD, lpExitCode:DWORD

If this call is successful, lpExitCode contains the termination status of the process in question. If the value in lpExitCode is equal to STILL_ACTIVE, then that process is still running.

You can forcibly terminate a process by calling TerminateProcess function. It has the following syntax:

TerminateProcess proto hProcess:DWORD, uExitCode:DWORD

You can specify the desired exit code for the process, any value you like. TerminateProcess is not a clean way to terminate a process since any dll attached to the process will not be notified that the process was terminated.
 

Example:

The following example will create a new process when the user selects the "create process" menu item. It will attempt to execute "msgbox.exe". If the user wants to terminate the new process, he can select the "terminate process" menu item. The program will check first if the new process is already destroyed, if it is not, the program  will call TerminateProcess function to destroy the new process.

.386
.model flat,stdcall
option casemap:none
WinMain proto :DWORD,:DWORD,:DWORD,:DWORD
include masm32includewindows.inc
include masm32includeuser32.inc
include masm32includekernel32.inc
includelib masm32libuser32.lib
includelib masm32libkernel32.lib

.const
IDM_CREATE_PROCESS equ 1
IDM_TERMINATE equ 2
IDM_EXIT equ 3

.data
ClassName db "Win32ASMProcessClass",0
AppName  db "Win32 ASM Process Example",0
MenuName db "FirstMenu",0
processInfo PROCESS_INFORMATION <>
programname db "msgbox.exe",0

.data?
hInstance HINSTANCE ?
CommandLine LPSTR ?
hMenu HANDLE ?
ExitCode DWORD ?  ; contains the process exitcode status from GetExitCodeProcess call.

.code
start:
  invoke GetModuleHandle, NULL
  mov  hInstance,eax
  invoke GetCommandLine
  mov CommandLine,eax
  invoke WinMain, hInstance,NULL,CommandLine, SW_SHOWDEFAULT
  invoke ExitProcess,eax

WinMain proc hInst:HINSTANCE,hPrevInst:HINSTANCE,CmdLine:LPSTR,CmdShow:DWORD
  LOCAL wc:WNDCLASSEX
  LOCAL msg:MSG
  LOCAL hwnd:HWND
  mov  wc.cbSize,SIZEOF WNDCLASSEX
  mov  wc.style, CS_HREDRAW or CS_VREDRAW
  mov  wc.lpfnWndProc, OFFSET WndProc
  mov  wc.cbClsExtra,NULL
  mov  wc.cbWndExtra,NULL
  push  hInst
  pop  wc.hInstance
  mov  wc.hbrBackground,COLOR_WINDOW+1
  mov  wc.lpszMenuName,OFFSET MenuName
  mov  wc.lpszClassName,OFFSET ClassName
  invoke LoadIcon,NULL,IDI_APPLICATION
  mov  wc.hIcon,eax
  mov  wc.hIconSm,eax
  invoke LoadCursor,NULL,IDC_ARROW
  mov  wc.hCursor,eax
  invoke RegisterClassEx, addr wc
  invoke CreateWindowEx,WS_EX_CLIENTEDGE,ADDR ClassName,ADDR AppName,
  WS_OVERLAPPEDWINDOW,CW_USEDEFAULT,
  CW_USEDEFAULT,300,200,NULL,NULL,
  hInst,NULL
  mov  hwnd,eax
  invoke ShowWindow, hwnd,SW_SHOWNORMAL
  invoke UpdateWindow, hwnd
  invoke GetMenu,hwnd
  mov  hMenu,eax
  .WHILE TRUE
  invoke GetMessage, ADDR msg,NULL,0,0
  .BREAK .IF (!eax)
  invoke TranslateMessage, ADDR msg
  invoke DispatchMessage, ADDR msg
  .ENDW
  mov  eax,msg.wParam
  ret
WinMain endp

WndProc proc hWnd:HWND, uMsg:UINT, wParam:WPARAM, lParam:LPARAM
  LOCAL startInfo:STARTUPINFO
  .IF uMsg==WM_DESTROY
  invoke PostQuitMessage,NULL
  .ELSEIF uMsg==WM_INITMENUPOPUP
  invoke GetExitCodeProcess,processInfo.hProcess,ADDR ExitCode
  .if eax==TRUE
  .if ExitCode==STILL_ACTIVE
  invoke EnableMenuItem,hMenu,IDM_CREATE_PROCESS,MF_GRAYED
  invoke EnableMenuItem,hMenu,IDM_TERMINATE,MF_ENABLED
  .else
  invoke EnableMenuItem,hMenu,IDM_CREATE_PROCESS,MF_ENABLED
  invoke EnableMenuItem,hMenu,IDM_TERMINATE,MF_GRAYED
  .endif
  .else
  invoke EnableMenuItem,hMenu,IDM_CREATE_PROCESS,MF_ENABLED
  invoke EnableMenuItem,hMenu,IDM_TERMINATE,MF_GRAYED
  .endif
  .ELSEIF uMsg==WM_COMMAND
  mov eax,wParam
  .if lParam==0
  .if ax==IDM_CREATE_PROCESS
  .if processInfo.hProcess!=0
  invoke CloseHandle,processInfo.hProcess
  mov processInfo.hProcess,0
  .endif
  invoke GetStartupInfo,ADDR startInfo
  invoke CreateProcess,ADDR programname,NULL,NULL,NULL,FALSE,
  NORMAL_PRIORITY_CLASS,
  NULL,NULL,ADDR startInfo,ADDR processInfo
  invoke CloseHandle,processInfo.hThread
  .elseif ax==IDM_TERMINATE
  invoke GetExitCodeProcess,processInfo.hProcess,ADDR ExitCode
  .if ExitCode==STILL_ACTIVE
  invoke TerminateProcess,processInfo.hProcess,0
  .endif
  invoke CloseHandle,processInfo.hProcess
  mov processInfo.hProcess,0
  .else
  invoke DestroyWindow,hWnd
  .endif
  .endif
  .ELSE
  invoke DefWindowProc,hWnd,uMsg,wParam,lParam
  ret
  .ENDIF
  xor  eax,eax
  ret
WndProc endp
end start

Analysis:

The program creates the main window and retrieves the menu handle for future use. It then waits for the user to select a command from the menu. When the user selects "Process" menu item in the main menu, we process WM_INITMENUPOPUP message to modify the menu items inside the popup menu before it's displayed.

  .ELSEIF uMsg==WM_INITMENUPOPUP
  invoke GetExitCodeProcess,processInfo.hProcess,ADDR ExitCode
  .if eax==TRUE
  .if ExitCode==STILL_ACTIVE
  invoke EnableMenuItem,hMenu,IDM_CREATE_PROCESS,MF_GRAYED
  invoke EnableMenuItem,hMenu,IDM_TERMINATE,MF_ENABLED
  .else
  invoke EnableMenuItem,hMenu,IDM_CREATE_PROCESS,MF_ENABLED
  invoke EnableMenuItem,hMenu,IDM_TERMINATE,MF_GRAYED
  .endif
  .else
  invoke EnableMenuItem,hMenu,IDM_CREATE_PROCESS,MF_ENABLED
  invoke EnableMenuItem,hMenu,IDM_TERMINATE,MF_GRAYED
  .endif

Why do we want to process this message? Because we want to prepare the menu items in the popup menu before the user can see them. In our example, if the new process is not started yet, we want to enable the "start process" and gray out the "terminate process" menu items. We do the reverse if the new process is already active.
We first check if the new process is still running by calling GetExitCodeProcess function with the process handle that was filled in by CreateProcess function. If GetExitCodeProcess returns FALSE, it means the process is not started yet so we gray out the "terminate process" menu item. If GetExitCodeProcess returns TRUE, we know that a new process has been started, but we have to check further if it is still running. So we compare the value in ExitCode to the value STILL_ACTIVE, if they're equal, the process is still running: we must gray out the "start process" menu item since we don't want to start several concurrent processes.

  .if ax==IDM_CREATE_PROCESS
  .if processInfo.hProcess!=0
  invoke CloseHandle,processInfo.hProcess
  mov processInfo.hProcess,0
  .endif
  invoke GetStartupInfo,ADDR startInfo
  invoke CreateProcess,ADDR programname,NULL,NULL,NULL,FALSE,
  NORMAL_PRIORITY_CLASS,
  NULL,NULL,ADDR startInfo,ADDR processInfo
  invoke CloseHandle,processInfo.hThread
 
When the user selects "start process" menu item, we first check if hProcess member of PROCESS_INFORMATION structure is already closed. If this is the first time, the value of hProcess will always be zero since we define PROCESS_INFORMATION structure in .data section. If the value of hProcess member is not 0, it means the child process has exited but we haven't closed its process handle yet. So this is the time to do it.
We call GetStartupInfo function to fill in the startupinfo structure that we will pass to CreateProcess function. After that we call CreateProcess function to start the new process. Note that I haven't checked the return value of CreateProcess because it will make the example more complex. In real life, you should check the return value of CreateProcess. Immediately after CreateProcess, we close the primary thread handle returned in processInfo structure. Closing the handle doesn't mean we terminate the thread, only that we don't want to use the handle to refer to the thread from our program. If we don't close it, it will cause a resource leak.

  .elseif ax==IDM_TERMINATE
  invoke GetExitCodeProcess,processInfo.hProcess,ADDR ExitCode
  .if ExitCode==STILL_ACTIVE
  invoke TerminateProcess,processInfo.hProcess,0
  .endif
  invoke CloseHandle,processInfo.hProcess
  mov processInfo.hProcess,0

When the user selects "terminate process" menu item, we check if the new process is still active by calling GetExitCodeProcess function. If it's still active, we call TerminateProcess function to kill the process. Also we close the child process handle since we have no need for it anymore.


来自 “ ITPUB博客 ” ,链接:http://blog.itpub.net/10748419/viewspace-980171/,如需转载,请注明出处,否则将追究法律责任。

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