Database startup and shutdown are powerful administrative options and are restricted
to users who connect to Oracle with administrator privileges. Depending on the
operating system, one of the following conditions establishes administrator privileges
for a user:
■ The user’s operating system privileges allow him or her to connect using
■ The user is granted the SYSDBA or SYSOPER privileges and the database uses
password files to authenticate database administrators.
When you connect with SYSDBA privileges, you are in the schema owned by SYS.
When you connect as SYSOPER, you are in the public schema. SYSOPER privileges are
a subset of SYSDBA privileges.
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