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Oracle数据库管理员职责(三)(转)

原创 Linux操作系统 作者:pingdanorcale 时间:2011-07-27 10:53:31 0 删除 编辑

  三.每周维护过程

  A.查找被破坏的目标

  1.对于每个给定表空间的对象来说,NEXT_EXTENT的大小是相同的,如12/14/98,缺省的NEXT_EXTENT的 DATAHI为1G,DATALO为500MB,INDEXES为256MB。

  A)检查NEXT_EXTENT的设置,可用‘NEXTEXT.SQL’。

  B)检查已有的EXTENTS,可用‘EXISTEXT.SQL’。

  2.所有的表都应该有唯一的主键

  a)查看那些表没有主键,可用‘NO_PK.SQL’。

  b)查找那些主键是没有发挥作用的,可用‘DIS_PK.SQL’。

  c)所有作索引的主键都要是唯一的,可用‘NONUPK.SQL’来检查。

  3.所有的索引都要放到索引表空间中。运行‘MKREBUILD_IDX.SQL’

  4.不同的环境之间的计划应该是同样的,特别是测试环境和成品环境之间的计划应该相同。

  a)检查不同的2个运行环境中的数据类型是否一致,可用‘DATATYPE.SQL’。

  b)在2个不同的实例中寻找对象的不同点,可用‘OBJ_COORD.SQL’。

  c)更好的做法是,使用一种工具,象寻求软件的计划管理器那样的工具。

  B.查看是否有危害到安全策略的问题。

  C.查看报错的SQL*NET日志。

  1.客户端的日志。

  2.服务器端的日志。

  D.将所有的警告日志存档。

  E..供应商的主页

  1. ORACLE供应商

  http://www.oracle.com

  http://technet.oracle.com

  http://www.oracle.com/support

  http://www.oramag.com  

  2. Quest Software

  http://www.quests.com

  3. Sun Microsystems

  http://www.sun.com

  四.月维护过程

  A.查看对数据库会产生危害的增长速度

1.从以前的记录或报告中回顾段增长的变化以此来确定段增长带来危害

  B.回顾以前数据库优化性能的调整

  1.回顾一般ORACLE数据库的调整点,比较以前的报告来确定有害的发展趋势。

  C.查看I/O的屏颈问题

  1.查看前期数据库文件的活动性,比较以前的输出来判断有可能导致屏颈问题的趋势。

  D.回顾FRAGMENTATION

  E.计划数据库将来的性能

  1.比较ORACLE和操作系统的CPU,内存,网络,及硬盘的利用率以此来确定在近期将会有的一些资源争夺的趋 势;

  2.当系统将超出范围时要把性能趋势当作服务水平的协议来看。

  F.完成调整和维护工作

  1.使修改满足避免系统资源的争夺的需要,这里面包括增加新资源或使预期的停工。

  五.附录(维护用程序)

  A.日常程序

  0. free.sql

  To verify free space in tablespaces

  Minimum amount of free space

  document your thresholds:

  = m  

 select tablespace_name,
       sum(blocks) as free_blk,
       trunc(sum(bytes) / ??(1024 * 1024)) as free_m,
       max(bytes) / (1024) as big_chunk_k,
       count(*) as num_chunks
  from dba_free_space
 GROUP BY tablespace_name;

  1. Space.sql

  -- space.sql

  -- To check free, pct_free, and allocated space within a tablespace

  -- 11/24/98

SELECT tablespace_name,
       largest_free_chunk,
       nr_free_chunks,
       sum_alloc_blocks,
       sum_free_blocks,
       to_char(100 * sum_free_blocks / sum_alloc_blocks, '09.99') || '%' AS pct_free
  From (SELECT tablespace_name, sum(blocks) AS sum_alloc_blocks
          From dba_data_files
         GROUP BY tablespace_name),
       (SELECT tablespace_name AS fs_ts_name,
               max(blocks) AS largest_free_chunk,
               count(blocks) AS nr_free_chunks,
               sum(blocks) AS sum_free_blocks
          FROM dba_free_space
         group BY tablespace_name)
 WHERE tablespace_name = fs_ts_name;

 2. analyze5pct.sql

  -- analyze5pct.sql

  -- To analyze tables and indexes quickly, using a 5% sample size

  -- (do not use this script. if you are performing the overnight collection of volumetric data)

  -- 11/30/98  

   BEGIN
  DBMS_UTILITY.ANALYZE_SCHEMA('&OWNER','ESTIMATE',NULL,5);
  END;
  /

  3. nr_extents.sql

  -- nr_extents.sql

  -- To find out any object reaching

  -- extents, and manually upgrade it to allow unlimited

  -- max_extents (thus only objects we *expect* to be big

  -- are allowed to become big)

  -- 11/30/98

   SELECTe.owner,e.segment_type,e.segment_name,count(*)asnr_extents,s.max_extents
  ,to_char(sum(e.bytes)/(1024*1024),'999,999.90')asMB
  FROMdba_extentse,dba_segmentss
  WHEREe.segment_name=s.segment_name
  GROUPBYe.owner,e.segment_type,e.segment_name,s.max_extents
  HAVINGcount(*)>&THRESHOLD
  OR((s.max_extents-count(*))<&&THRESHOLD)
  ORDERBYcount(*)desc;

  4. spacebound.sql

  spacebound.sql

  To identify space-bound objects. If all is well, no rows are returned.

  f any space-bound objects are found, look at value of NEXT extent

  size to figure out what happened.

  Then use coalesce (alter tablespace coalesce .

  Lastly, add another datafile to the tablespace if needed.

  11/30/98

   SELECTa.table_name,a.next_extent,a.tablespace_name
  FROMall_tablesa,
  (SELECTtablespace_name,max(bytes)asbig_chunk
  FROMdba_free_space
  GROUPBYtablespace_name)f
  WHEREf.tablespace_name=a.tablespace_name
  ANDa.next_extent>f.big_chunk;

  B.每晚处理程序

  1. mk_volfact.sql

  mk_volfact.sql (only run this once to set it up; do not run it nightly!)

  Table UTL_VOL_FACTS

   CREATETABLEutl_vol_facts(
  table_nameVARCHAR2(30),
  num_rowsNUMBER,
  meas_dtDATE)
  TABLESPACEplatab
  STORAGE(
  INITIAL128k
  NEXT128k
  PCTINCREASE0
  MINEXTENTS1
  MAXEXTENTSunlimited
  )
  /
  --PublicSynonym
  CREATEPUBLICSYNONYMutl_vol_factsFOR&OWNER..utl_vol_facts
  /

  Grants for UTL_VOL_FACTS 

   GRANTSELECTONutl_vol_factsTOpublic

 

2. analyze_comp.sql

  analyze_comp.sql

   BEGIN
  SYS.DBMS_UTILITY.ANALYZE_SCHEMA('&OWNER','COMPUTE');
  END;
  /

  3. pop_vol.sql

  pop_vol.sql 

  insertintoutl_vol_facts
  selecttable_name
  ,NVL(num_rows,0)asnum_rows
  ,trunc(last_analyzed)asmeas_dt
  fromall_tables

  or just user_tables 

   whereownerin('&OWNER')

  or a comma-separated list of owners  

   /
  commit
  /

  C.每周处理程序

  1. nextext.sql

  nextext.sql

  To find tables that don't match the tablespace default for NEXT extent.

  The implicit rule here is that every table in a given tablespace should

  use the exact same value for NEXT, which should also be the tablespace's

  default value for NEXT.

  his tells us what the setting for NEXT is for these objects today.

  11/30/98  

   SELECTsegment_name,segment_type,ds.next_extentasActual_Next
  ,dt.tablespace_name,dt.next_extentasDefault_Next
  FROMdba_tablespacesdt,dba_segmentsds
  WHEREdt.tablespace_name=ds.tablespace_name
  ANDdt.next_extent!=ds.next_extent
  ANDds.owner=UPPER('&OWNER')
  ORDERBYtablespace_name,segment_type,segment_name;

  2. existext.sql 

which primary keys are disabled

  11/30/98 

   SELECTowner,constraint_name,table_name,status
  FROMall_constraints
  WHEREwner='&OWNERwhich primary keys are disabled

  11/30/98 

   SELECTowner,constraint_name,table_name,status
  FROMall_constraints
  WHEREwner='&OWNER'ANDstatus='DISABLED’ANDconstraint_type='P';

'ANDstatus='DISABLED’ANDconstraint_type='P';

 5. nonuPK.sql

  nonuPK.sql

  To find tables with nonunique PK indexes. Requires that PK names

  follow a naming convention. An alternative query follows that

  does not have this requirement, but runs more slowly.      

  11/2/98  

   SELECTindex_name,table_name,uniqueness
  FROMall_indexes
  WHEREindex_namelike'&PKNAME%'
  ANDwner='&OWNER'ANDuniqueness='NONUNIQUE'
  SELECTc.constraint_name,i.tablespace_name,i.uniqueness
  FROMall_constraintsc,all_indexesi
  WHEREc.owner=UPPER('&OWNER')ANDi.uniqueness='NONUNIQUE'
  ANDc.constraint_type='P'ANDi.index_name=c.constraint_name

  6. mkrebuild_idx.sql

  mkrebuild_idx.sql

  Rebuild indexes to have correct storage parameters

  11/2/98 

   SELECT'alterindex'||index_name||'rebuild'
  ,'tablespaceINDEXESstorage'
  ||'(initial256Knext256Kpctincrease0);'
  FROMall_indexes
  WHERE(tablespace_name!='INDEXES'
  ORnext_extent!=(256*1024)
  )
  ANDwner='&OWNER'
  /

  7. datatype.sql

  datatype.sql

  To check datatype consistency between two environments

  11/30/98 

   SELECTtable_name,column_name,data_type,data_length,data_precision,data_scale,nullable
  FROMall_tab_columns--firstenvironment
  WHEREwner='&OWNER'
  MINUS
  SELECTtable_name,column_name,data_type,data_length,data_precision,data_scale,nullable
  FROMall_tab_columns@&my_db_link--secondenvironment
  WHEREwner='&OWNER2'
  orderbytable_name,column_name

  8. obj_coord.sql

  obj_coord.sql

  To find out any difference in objects between two instances

  12/08/98     

   SELECTobject_name,object_type
  FROMuser_objects
  MINUS
  SELECTobject_name,object_type
  FROMuser_objects@&my_db_link

 

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