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[Z]mysql中文乱码终结

原创 MySQL 作者:yonniezhao 时间:2007-10-14 23:17:16 0 删除 编辑
我自己都不知道为了中文问题烦恼了多少个日子,最恨瑞典人了-谁叫他发明了mysql,还设置了默认设置:latin1.曾经也在想假如中国人发明了 mysql(my see狗),呵呵,那么我们还有这样烦恼吗?默认的就是gk2312 或者gbk.倘若考虑到台湾朋友加一个big5.就得了。可是呢?事实不是这样的,没有办法,自己只好baidu一下,google一下,甚至yahoo 一下。能找到的方法都试过了,好久了,直到今天让我找到了,想明白了。所以急切和大家分享以下心得。

为了说的明白一些,我觉个例子:
很简单,就是从html中接受两个输入,然后由jsp处理写到mysql且从数据库返回这个结果显示出来。
Mysql_jstl.html

<html>
<head>
<title>CH14 - Mysql_jstl.html</title>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset= GB2312">
</head>
<body>

<h2>将信息存入 Mysql 中 - 使用 JSTL 写法</h2>
<form name="form" action="Mysql_jstl.jsp" method="post" >
<p>姓:<input name="last_name" type="text" id="last_name"></p>
<p>名:<input name="first_name" type="text" id="first_name"></p>
<p>
<input type="submit" value="传送">
<input type="reset" value="取消">
</p>
</form>

</body>
</html>




Mysql_jstl.jsp<%@ page contentType="text/html;charset=GB2312" %>
<%@ taglib prefix="c" uri="http://java.sun.com/jsp/jstl/core" %>
<%@ taglib prefix="sql" uri="http://java.sun.com/jsp/jstl/sql" %>
<%@ taglib prefix="fmt" uri="http://java.sun.com/jsp/jstl/fmt" %>

<html>
<head>
<title>CH14 - Mysql_jstl.jsp</title>
</head>
<body>

<h2>将信息存入 Mysql 中 - 使用 JSTL 写法</h2>

<fmt:requestEncoding value="GB2312" />

<c:set var="birth" value="1978/12/11" />
<c:set var="sex" value="F" />
<c:set var="email" value="aaa@asdf.com" />

<sql:setDataSource driver="com.mysql.jdbc.Driver"
url="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/sample?useUnicode=true&characterEncoding=UTF-8"
user="root"
password="44444" />

<sql:update>
INSERT INTO employee(employee_id, last_name, first_name, birth, sex, emmail)
VALUES ( ? , ? , ? , ? , ? , ? )

<sql:param value="${employee_id}" />
<sql:param value="${param.last_name}" />
<sql:param value="${param.first_name}" />
<sql:param value="${birth}" />
<sql:param value="${sex}" />
<sql:param value="${email}" />
</sql:update>

<sql:query var="result">
SELECT * FROM employee
</sql:query>

从 employee 取出所有新增的姓名:<br>
<c:forEach items="${result.rows}" var="row" >
新增姓名:<c:out value="${row.last_name}" />
<c:out value="${row.first_name}" /><br>
</c:forEach>

</body>
</html>


接下来就是创建数据库,名字为sample

然后建立一个table: employee,
内容如下(其中应该是email,可是我不小心在建数据库打错了,将错就错了):

+-------------+------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| Field | Type | Null | Key | Default | Extra |
+-------------+------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| employee_id | int(10) unsigned | NO | PRI | NULL | auto_increment |
| last_name | varchar(20) | YES | | NULL | |
| first_name | varchar(20) | YES | | NULL | |
| birth | date | YES | | NULL | |
| sex | enum('m','f') | YES | | m | |
| emmail | varchar(39) | YES | | NULL | |
+-------------+------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+

如果只是这样的话,就会出现这样的错误:报告的错误是:sqle=com.mysql.jdbc.MysqlDataTruncation: Data truncation: Data too long
for column 'last_name' at row 1
从 employee!
有的情况是:
| name |
+-------------+
| ?? |
| 54243654321 |
| ?? |
| ?? |
+-------------+出现问号!

前面我们已经说过了,mysql默认的编码是latin1,不是我们所需要的gbk,所以我们要修改成为utf8,因为若要正确显示中文繁、简、日文、韩文 使用utf8,修改方法如下:
ALTER DATABASE sample ####这里修改整个数据库的编码
CHARACTER SET utf8
DEFAULT CHARACTER SET utf8
COLLATE utf8_general_ci
DEFAULT COLLATE utf8_general_ci;

当然了,你也可在在建数据库的时候指定编码,比如:

CREATE DATABASE sample

CHARACTER SET utf8
DEFAULT CHARACTER SET utf8

COLLATE utf8_general_ci
DEFAULT COLLATE utf8_general_ci ;

接下来要做的是打开mysql所在的目录下的my.nin

在[mysqld]段加入一下代码改成:


default-character-set=utf8

启动mysql,输入:


执行下列语句,看看结果是不是下面的:

mysql> show variables like '%character%';
+--------------------------+-------------------------------------------+
| Variable_name | Value |
+--------------------------+-------------------------------------------+
| character_set_client | latin1 |
| character_set_connection | latin1 |
| character_set_database | utf8 |
| character_set_results | latin1 |
| character_set_server | utf8
| character_set_system | utf8 |
| character_sets_dir | C:MySQLMySQL Server 5.0sharecharsets |
+--------------------------+-------------------------------------------+

mysql> show variables like '%collation%';
+----------------------+-------------------+
| Variable_name | Value |
+----------------------+-------------------+
| collation_connection | latin1_swedish_ci |
| collation_database | utf8_general_ci |
| collation_server | utf8_general_ci |
+----------------------+-------------------+


接着你再看看执行那个Mysql.html 文件:这回你可以看到的是
mysql> select * from employee;
+-------------+-----------+------------+------------+------+--------------+
| employee_id | last_name | first_name | birth | sex | emmail |
+-------------+-----------+------------+------------+------+--------------+
| 12 | ? | ?? | 1978-12-11 | f | aaa@asdf.com |
| 13 | ? | ?? | 1978-12-11 | f | aaa@asdf.com |
| 14 | ? | ?? | 1978-12-11 | f | aaa@asdf.com |
| 15 | ? | ?? | 1978-12-11 | f | aaa@asdf.com |
| 16 | ? | ?? | 1978-12-11 | f | aaa@asdf.com |
| 17 | ? | ?? | 1978-12-11 | f | aaa@asdf.com |
+-------------+-----------+------------+------------+------+--------------+

这当然不是我们希望看到的,我们需要的现实完美正确的中文:
我们还有最后一招:
mysql> SET NAMES 'gbk' ;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
因为我们需要的是gbk.
看看mysql中的character设置情况:

mysql> SHOW VARIABLES LIKE '%character%' ;
+--------------------------+-------------------------------------------+
| Variable_name | Value |
+--------------------------+-------------------------------------------+
| character_set_client | gbk |
| character_set_connection | gbk |
| character_set_database | utf8 |
| character_set_results | gbk |
| character_set_server | utf8 |
| character_set_system | utf8 |
| character_sets_dir | C:MySQLMySQL Server 5.0sharecharsets |
+--------------------------+-------------------------------------------+
7 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> SHOW VARIABLES LIKE '%collation%' ;
+----------------------+-----------------+
| Variable_name | Value |
+----------------------+-----------------+
| collation_connection | gbk_chinese_ci |
| collation_database | utf8_general_ci |
| collation_server | utf8_general_ci |
+----------------------+-----------------+

这个才是我们最终需要的。
在来查看执行完Mysql_jstl.jsp后的数据库中的结果:
mysql> select * from employee;
| 14 | 王 | 彭给 | 1978-12-11 | f | aaa@asdf.com |
| 15 | 田 | 王光 | 1978-12-11 | f | aaa@asdf.com |
| 16 | 息 | 存入 | 1978-12-11 | f | aaa@asdf.com |
| 17 | 往 | 小杯 | 1978-12-11 | f | aaa@asdf.com |
+-------------+-----------+------------+------------+------+--------------+

可以高兴得看到了中文,并且在浏览器中也显示正确。

但是仅仅这样的话,当你重新启动mysql的时候
所有的设置又失效了。
mysql> show variables like '%character%';
+--------------------------+-------------------------------------------+
| Variable_name | Value |
+--------------------------+-------------------------------------------+
| character_set_client | latin1 |
| character_set_connection | latin1 |
| character_set_database | utf8 |
| character_set_results | latin1 |
| character_set_server | utf8 |
| character_set_system | utf8 |
| character_sets_dir | C:MySQLMySQL Server 5.0sharecharsets |
+--------------------------+-------------------------------------------+

mysql> SHOW VARIABLES LIKE '%collation%' ;
+----------------------+-------------------+
| Variable_name | Value |
+----------------------+-------------------+
| collation_connection | latin1_swedish_ci |
| collation_database | utf8_general_ci |
| collation_server | utf8_general_ci |
+----------------------+-------------------+
重新读取又出现乱码:
mysql> select * from employee;
+-------------+-----------+------------+------------+--
| employee_id | last_name | first_name | birth | s
+-------------+-----------+------------+------------+--
| 12 | ? | ?? | 1978-12-11 | f
| 13 | ? | ?? | 1978-12-11 | f
| 14 | ? | ?? | 1978-12-11 | f
| 15 | ? | ?? | 1978-12-11 | f
| 16 | ? | ?? | 1978-12-11 | f
| 17 | ? | ?? | 1978-12-11 | f
+-------------+-----------+------------+------------+--
所以我们需要在客户端设置系统能识别中文的编码gbk并没有保存到my.ini文件中。所以要修改my.ini文件
在[mysql]段加入一下代码改成:default-character-set=gbk 这样设置就得到保存了。
重启就可以了。mysql> show variables like '%character%';
+--------------------------+----------------
| Variable_name | Value
+--------------------------+----------------
| character_set_client | gbk
| character_set_connection | gbk
| character_set_database | utf8
| character_set_results | gbk
| character_set_server | utf8
| character_set_system | utf8
| character_sets_dir | C:MySQLMySQL
+--------------------------+----------------
mysql> SHOW VARIABLES LIKE '%collation%' ;
+----------------------+-----------------+
| Variable_name | Value |
+----------------------+-----------------+
| collation_connection | gbk_chinese_ci |
| collation_database | utf8_general_ci |
| collation_server | utf8_general_ci |
+----------------------+-----------------+
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